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Home > Landscaping > Native Plants for Western Washington Gardens and Restoration Projects


Native Plants for Forest and Thicket Habitats

Abies amabilis
Pacific Silver Fir
An attractive conifer with short dark green needles. Tolerant of shade.
Leaves evergreen.
Abies grandis
Grand Fir
Abies grandis is a tall, straight tree with short, dense branches.
Height: 130-260 feet (40-80 meters). Leaves evergreen.
Acer circinatum
Vine Maple
Tall, erect, multi-trunked shrub or small tree with sprawling branches.
Height: 13-26 feet (4-8 meters) Leaves deciduous.
Acer macrophyllum
Big-leaf Maple
A tree with a large, often multi-stemmed trunk and a loose, broad crown of large leaves.
Height: 65-100 feet (20-30 meters) tall with trunk 3-5 feet (1-1.5 meters)diameter. Leaves deciduous.
Achillea millefolium
Yarrow
Aromatic herb with delicate fern-like leaves and flat-topped clusters of white flowers.
Height: 4 inches to 3 feet (10-100 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Achlys triphylla
Vanilla Leaf
Grows low to the ground, spreading by rhizomes to form dense ground cover in shady areas.
Height: To 12 inches (30 cm) tall. Leaves deciduous.
Adiantum aleuticum
Maidenhair Fern, Aleutian maidenhair, western maidenhair, serpentine maidenhair
Small to medium-sized delicate, deciduous fern with a fan-shaped arrangement of five to seven fingerlike branchlets each bearing many toothed leaflets.
Height: 6-43 inches (15-110 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Allium acuminatum
Taper-Tip Onion
This native wild onion has grass-like basal leaves overtopped by umbels of purple flowers, and egg-shaped bulbs containing a fibrous network on the surface.
Height: Up to 12 inches (30 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Allium cernuum
Nodding Onion
Clusters of long grass-like leaves overtopped by nodding umbels of pink flowers.
Height: Up to 20 inches (50 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Alnus rubra
Red Alder
A fast-growing deciduous tree well suited to disturbed sites.
Height: Up to 80 feet (25 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Amelanchier alnifolia
Serviceberry, Saskatoon
Medium-sized shrub producing fragrant white flowers in late spring.
Height: Up to 15 feet (4.5 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Anaphalis margaritacea
Pearly Everlasting
Clump forming, perennial herb with small withering basal leaves and papery white flower clusters.
Height: Up to 40 inches (100 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Aquilegia formosa
Red Columbine
Delicate perennial with large nodding, star-shaped, spurred flowers that are a favorite of hummingbirds.
Height: Can grow up to 3 feet (1 meter) tall. Leaves deciduous.
Arbutus menziesii
Madrone
An attractive broadleaf evergreen with a twisting reddish trunk and irregular branches with an overall rounded outline.
Height: Up to 100 feet (30 meters). Leaves evergreen.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Kinnikinnick, Bearberry
A mat-forming evergreen shrub producing lovely pink flowers that later turn into red berries.
Height: Can grow up to 8 inches (20 cm) tall. Leaves evergreen.
Aruncus dioicus
Goat's Beard
Tall perennial herb topped with large feathery clusters of white flowers, grows from rhizomes and has multiple stems.
Height: Can grow up to 6.5 feet (2 meters) tall. Leaves deciduous.
Asarum caudatum
Wild Ginger
Low-growing evergreen perennial that smells strongly of lemon-ginger when crushed.
Height: Can grow up to 8 inches (20 cm) tall. Leaves deciduous.
Aster chilensis
Common California Aster
A slender, sprawling perennial that produces light purple flowers.
Height: Can grow up to 3 ft. (100 cm.) Leaves deciduous.
Aster modestus
Great Northern Aster
A tall, much-branched perennial with numerous heads of purplish flowers.
Height: Grows up to 40 inches (100 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Aster subspicatus
Douglas Aster
Rhizomatous perennial wildflower with much-branched stems and light purple aster-like flower heads.
Height: Grows up to 32 inches (80 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Athyrium filix-femina
Lady Fern
Tall, delicate, light-green fronds from a basal cluster.
Height: Grows 3-6 feet (2 meters) tall. Leaves deciduous.
Betula papyrifera
Paper Birch
A small to medium sized deciduous tree with attractive white, peeling papery bark.
Height: Up to 100 feet (30 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Blechnum spicant
Deer Fern
Dark green fern leaves grow in tufts from short, stout rhizomes.
Height: Up to 40 inches (1 meter) tall. Leaves evergreen.
Boykinia occidentalis
Slender Boykinia
A slender herb with open panicles of small white flowers.
Height: Up to 24 inches (60 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Brodiaea congesta
Harvest Lily
Long slender stems to 3 feet (1 meter) in length topped by a dense cluster of deep purple flowers.
Height: Up to 3 feet (1 meter) tall. Leaves deciduous.
Camassia leitchlinii
Great Camas
Stately perennial from a deep bulb, producing spikes of large blue flowers in early spring.
Height: Up to 28 inches (70 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Camassia quamash
Common Camas
Bulbous perennial producing a spike of large blue flowers.
Height: Up to 28 inches (70 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Campanula rotundifolia
Harebell
Delicate stems topped by large, nodding bell-shaped blue flowers.
Height: 4-32 inches (10-80 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Castilleja miniata
Red Paintbrush
An attractive wildflower with red brush-like flower clusters.
Height: 8-32 inches (20-80 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Ceanothus velutinus
Snowbrush
A tall shrub with glossy leaves and clusters of white flowers.
Height: Up to 10 feet (3 meters). Leaves evergreen.
Chamerion angustifolium
Fireweed
Tall perennial from rhizome like roots with unbranched stem and terminal spikes of large red to pink flowers.
Height: Up to 10 feet (3 meters), but usually shorter than 6 feet (2 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Clarkia amoena
Farewell to Spring
A taprooted annual with large showy, usually pink flowers; often grown horticulturally.
Height: 4 inches to 3 feet (10-100 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Claytonia perfoliata
Miner's Lettuce
Low-growing, mat-like herbaceous annual with succulent round leaves.
Height: 12 inches (30 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Claytonia sibirica
Siberian Spring Beauty
Low-growing delicate herb.
Height: Up to 16 inches (40 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Cornus nuttallii
Western Flowering Dogwood
Multi-branched, irregular trees with attractive large white "flowers".
Height: Up to 65 feet (20 meters) tall. Leaves deciduous.
Cornus stolonifera
Red-osier Dogwood
Spreading, thicket-forming shrub with bright red stems.
Height: Up to 20 feet (6 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Cornus unalaschkensis
Bunchberry
Low, trailing, rhizomatous perennial with white flowers.
Height: Up to 10 inches (25 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Corylus cornuta
Beaked Hazelnut
Slender, multi-trunked deciduous shrub.
Height: 3 feet - 13 feet (1 meter - 4 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Crataegus douglasii
black hawthorn
large shrub or small tree with clusters of white flowers and dark purplish-black berries.
Leaves deciduous.
Deschampsia cespitosa
Tufted Hairgrass
Densely tufted perennial grass.
Height: Up to 4 feet (120 cm) tall. Leaves deciduous.
Dicentra formosa
Bleeding Heart
Hairless, soft stems and light green lacy leaves overtopped by small nodding clusters of pink heart-shaped flowers.
Height: Up to 1.5 feet (50 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Disporum hookeri
Hooker's Fairybells
Rhizomatous perennial with sparsely branched stems and irregularly curled leaves with hanging white flowers beneath the upper leaves.
Height: Up to 3 feet (1 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Dryopteris expansa
Spiny Wood Fern
A semi-evergreen fern of woodland areas with triangular fronds from a stout rhizome.
Height: To 3 feet (1 meter) tall. Leaves deciduous.
Elymus glaucus
Blue Wild-rye
Tufted perennial grass usually forming small clumps, 0.5 to 1.5 m tall.
Height: 20-40 inches (0.5-1 meter). Leaves deciduous.
Epilobium watsonii
Watson's Willowherb
Erect herbaceous perennial with opposite leaves.
Height: Up to 5 feet (150 cm). Leaves evergreen.
Erigeron philadelphicus
Philadelphia Fleabane
Short-lived perennial with erect stem-base and taproot or fibrous roots.
Height: Up to 2.25 feet (70 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Eriophyllum lanatum
Woolly Sunflower
Wooly leafy perennial with yellow daisy-like flowers.
Height: Up to 2 feet (60 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Erythronium oregonum
White Fawn Lily
Showy white lily from segmented corm.
Height: Flower stem up to 1 feet (30 cm) tall. Leaves deciduous.
Erythronium revolutum
Pink fawn lily
Large nodding pink flowers grow from a thick and segmented corm.
Height: Up to 14 inches (35 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Festuca rubra
Red Fescue
Perennial grass with thread-like leaves forming small patches.
Height: Can grow up to 4 feet (1.2 meters) tall. Leaves evergreen.
Fragaria vesca
Woodland strawberry
A wild strawberry with thin leaves, low, short runners, white flowers, and small red strawberries.
Height: Up to 10 inches (25 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Fragaria virginiana
Wild strawberry
Low growing wild strawberry with runners, white flowers, and small red strawberries.
Height: Up to 10 inches (25 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Fritillaria lanceolata
Chocolate Lily, Rice Root
Rare herb to 80 cm tall from bulb with numerous rice-like bulblets; flowers are mottled maroon and yellow.
Height: Up to 32 inches (80 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Galium aparine
Cleavers, Bedstraw
Leaves deciduous.
Galium trifidum
Small Bedstraw
Sprawling perennial with numerous stems from slender rhizomes.
Height: up to 28 inches (70 cm). Leaves evergreen.
Gaultheria shallon
Salal
Creeping to erect shrub with hairy branching stems and dark leathery leaves.
Height: Up to 16 feet (5 meters) in exceptional cases but typically 3-7 feet (1-2 m) tall. Leaves evergreen.
Geum macrophyllum
Large-leaved Avens
Hairy perennial with short rhizomes and big leaves topped by small yellow flowers.
Height: Up to 3 feet (1 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Gilia capitata
Globe Gilia
Upright taprooted annual with large ball-like heads of blue flowers.
Height: Up to 3 feet (1 meter). Leaves deciduous.
Glyceria elata
Tall Mannagrass, Fowl Mannagrass
Tall wetland grass.
Height: Up to 5 feet (1.5 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Goodyera oblongifolia
Rattlesnake Plantain
Evergreen orchid from short rhizomes with an unusual mottled leaf pattern.
Height: Up to 1.5 feet (45 cm). Leaves evergreen.
Gymnocarpium dryopteris
Oak Fern
Delicate, deciduous fronds. Usually solitary, but often forms a mat of herbaceous cover in forests.
Height: To 16 inches (40 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Heuchera micrantha
Small-flowered Alumroot
Grows from rhizomes with one to many flower stems that are reddish and covered with fine hairs and topped with delicate panicles of tiny white flowers.
Height: Up to 2 feet (60 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Holodiscus discolor
Oceanspray
Multi-stemmed upright shrub with ridged young stems and arching older stems with peeling bark. White flowers.
Height: Up to 13 feet (4 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Hordeum brachyantherum
Meadow Barley
Grass with erect stems that are bent at the base and sometimes hairy on the leaf sheaths.
Height: Up to 3 feet (90 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Hydrophyllum tenuipes
Pacific Waterleaf
Single leafy, hairy stem grows from rhizomes and fleshy fibrous roots; with small clusters of greenish-white flowers.
Height: Up to 32 inches (80 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Iris tenax
Oregon Iris
Clumped, perennial iris with large purple flowers.
Height: Up to 16 inches (40 cm). Leaves evergreen.
Kalmia microphylla ssp. occidentalis
Bog Laurel
Small, slender-branched shrub with dark green waxy leaves and clusters of bright pink flowers.
Height: Up to 3 feet (1 meter). Leaves deciduous.
Lilium columbianum
Tiger Lily
Leaves deciduous.
Linnaea borealis
Twinflower
Trailing, slender, semi-woody, with short erect leafy stems and dainty bell-shaped flowers.
Height: 4 inches (10 cm). Leaves evergreen.
Lithophragma parviflorum
Small-flowered Woodland Star
Delicate herb from slender rhizomes with numerous small bulblets; white star-shaped flowers.
Height: 2-16 inches (10-40 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Lomatium utriculatum
Spring Gold
Perennial herb with finely lacey foliage and flat-topped umbels of bright yellow flowers.
Leaves deciduous.
Lonicera ciliosa
Orange Honeysuckle
Climbing vine with clusters of tubular bright orange flowers.
Height: Typically up to 20 feet (6 meters). Leaves evergreen.
Lonicera hispidula
Hairy Honeysuckle
Clamboring vine with clusters of light purple tubular flowers.
Height: Up to 33 feet (10 meters) in trees. Leaves deciduous.
Lupinus polyphyllus
Large-leaved Lupine
A large perennial native forb with spikes of blue flowers from one to many hairy stems.
Height: 3-6 feet (1-2 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Lysichiton americanum
Skunk Cabbage
A wetland plant with very large waxy erect leaves and yellow flower spikes enclosed in a large yellow sheath.
Height: 1-5 feet (30-150 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Mahonia aquifolium
Tall Oregon Grape
Erect, stiff-branched shrub with holly-like leaves and clusters of yellow flowers.
Height: 2.5 - 6.5 feet (0.8 meters - 2 meters). Leaves evergreen.
Mahonia nervosa
Dull Oregon Grape
Low-growing creeping shrub with dark green holly-like leaves and slender spikes of yellow flowers.
Height: Up to 2 feet (60 cm) tall. Leaves evergreen.
Maianthemum dilatatum
False Lily-of-the-Valley
Quickly spreading ground cover with attractive glossy green leaves.
Height: Up to 12 inches (30 cm) tall. Leaves deciduous.
Maianthemum racemosum
False Solomon's Seal
Leaves deciduous.
Maianthemum stellatum
Starflowered False Solomon's Seal
Leaves deciduous.
Malus fusca
Pacific Crabapple
Small tree, slender in form, appears thorny; bushy in the open.
Height: 16.5-40 feet (5-12 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Nothochelone nemorosa
Woodland Penstemon
Leaves deciduous.
Oemleria cerasiformis
Indian Plum, Osoberry
Deciduous shrub producing clusters of white flowers in very early spring. One of the earliest plants to bloom.
Height: 16.5 feet (5 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Olsynium douglasii
Satin Flower, Grass Widow
Showy tufted perennial resembling a miniature iris topped with large pink to purple flowers.
Height: Up to 12 inches (30 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Oplopanax horridus
Devil's Club
An erect to sprawling shrub with thick, spiny, crooked stems and very large leaves.
Height: Up to 10 feet (3 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Oxalis oregana
Wood Sorrel
A delicate herb with clover-like leaves and white to pink flowers, forming carpets in forested areas.
Leaves deciduous.
Petasites palmatus
Palmate Coltsfoot
Many-stemmed perennial with umbrella-like leaves from creeping rhizomes.
Height: Up to 30 inches (80 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Philadelphus lewisii
Mock Orange
Erect, loosely branched shrub with large fragrant white flowers.
Height: Up to 10 feet (3 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Phlox diffusa
Spreading Phlox
Mat forming perennial with showy white to pink flowers.
Height: Up to 4 inches (10 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Physocarpus capitatus
Pacific Ninebark
Erect to spreading shrub up to 4 meters tall with clusters of white flowers.
Height: Up to 13 feet (4 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Picea sitchensis
Sitka spruce
Large tree with horizontal branches and drooping branchlets
Height: Up to 200 feet (60 meters) tall. Leaves evergreen.
Platanthera dilatata
White Rein-Orchid, Bog Candle
Perennial orchid with spikes of white flowers from tuber-like roots.
Height: Up to 28 inches (70 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Polemonium pulcherrimum
Showy Jacob's-ladder
Taprooted perennial with mostly basal leaves and blue bell-shaped flowers.
Height: Up to 14 inches (35 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Polystichum munitum
Sword Fern
A large attractive fern with erect evergreen fronds forming a circular crown.
Height: 3-5 feet (1-1.5 meters). Leaves evergreen.
Populus balsamifera
Black Cottonwood
Leaves deciduous.
Populus tremuloides
Quaking Aspen
Deciduous thicket-forming tree with smooth white bark and leaves that "quake" in the wind.
Leaves deciduous.
Potentilla gracilis
Graceful Cinquefoil
Light green herb with toothed palmate leaves and diffuse panicles of yellow, saucer-shaped flowers.
Height: Up to 32 inches (80 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Prunella vulgaris ssp. lanceolata
Self Heal
Fibrous-rooted perennial from short rhizome or stem-base with small purple flowers.
Height: Up to 20 inches (50 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Prunus emarginata var. mollis
Bitter Cherry
Shrub or small tree with white flowers and small red cherries.
Height: Up to 50 feet (15 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Douglas fir
Large coniferous tree with thick, fluted bark.
Height: Up to 300 feet (90 meters). Leaves evergreen.
Pteridium aquilinum
Bracken Fern
Rhizomous perennial fern with large, much-divided solitary fronds,
Height: Usually 3-6 feet (1-2 meters) tall, sometimes taller. Leaves deciduous.
Pyrola asarifolia
Pink Wintergreen
A small woodland herb with a basal clump of glossy green leaves and slender spikes of pink flowers.
Leaves deciduous.
Quercus garryana
Garry Oak
Beautiful, deciduous, heavy limbed oak tree.
Height: Up to 82 feet (25 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Ranunculus occidentalis
Western Buttercup
Slender perennial herb with fibrous roots and yellow flowers.
Height: Up to 2 feet (60 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Rhamnus purshiana
Cascara
Erect, tall shrub or small tree with alternate leaves and inconspicuous flower clusters.
Height: Up to 33 feet (10 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Rhododendron macrophyllum
Pacific Rhododendron
Showy shrub that can grow very large, with clusters of large pink flowers.
Height: Up to 26 feet (8 meters) if grown in shade; shorter and bushier in sunlight. Leaves evergreen.
Ribes lacustre
Black Gooseberry
Erect to spreading shrub with spiny stems.
Height: Up to 6.5 feet (2 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Ribes sanguineum
Red Flowering Currant
Erect, multi-stemmed shrub with showy clusters of deep pink flowers in early spring.
Height: 3-10 feet (1-3 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Rosa gymnocarpa
Baldhip Rose
Spindly shrub with brittle weak straight spines and small pink rose flowers.
Height: Up to 5 feet (1.5 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Rosa nutkana
Nootka Rose
Spindly shrub with a pair of prickles at the base of each leaf and large pink rose flowers.
Height: Up to 10 feet (3 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Rubus parviflorus
Thimbleberry
Unarmed spreading shrub with large white flowers. Usually forms dense thickets.
Height: Up to 10 feet (3 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Rubus spectabilis
Salmonberry
Erect and branching shrub with early spring pink flowers and reddish-orange raspberry-like fruits.
Height: Up to 13 feet (4 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Rubus ursinus
Trailing Blackberry
Trailing prickly vine producing small blackberries in late summer.
Height: 20 inches (50 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Sambucus racemosa
Red Elderberry
Shrub to small tree with clusters of small white flowers and red berries.
Height: 20 feet (6 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Sedum spathulifolium
Broad-leaved Stonecrop
Leaves evergreen.
Solidago canadensis
Canada Goldenrod
Forms patches from long creeping rhizomes. Stems leafy and hairy near the top, with a dense cluster of small yellow flowers.
Height: Up to 5 feet (1.5 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Sorbus sitchensis
Sitka-Mountain Ash
Leaves deciduous.
Stachys cooleyae
Cooley's Hedge Nettle
Perennial from rhizomes.
Height: Up to 5 feet (1.5 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Streptopus amplexifolius
Clasping Twisted Stalk
Perennial herb with a branched zigzagging stem and dangling white flowers.
Height: 3 feet (1 meter). Leaves deciduous.
Symphoricarpos albus
Snowberry
Erect shrub with attractive white berries that persist through the winter.
Height: Up to 6.5 feet (2 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Taxus brevifolia
Western Yew
Low-growing conifer with deep red-brown bark, flattened sprays of needles, and red berry-like cones.
Leaves evergreen.
Tellima grandiflora
Fringecup
Leaves deciduous.
Thuja plicata
Western Red Cedar
Large conifer with branches that droop and then turn back up (J-shaped), broad crowns.
Height: 100-230 feet (30-70 meters). Leaves evergreen.
Tiarella trifoliata
Foamflower
Herb with erect or ascending stems and spikes of dainty white flowers.
Height: 2 feet (60 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Tolmiea menziesii
Piggy-back Plant
A woodland herb whose leaves give rise to small plantlets.
Leaves deciduous.
Trientalis latifolia
Broad-leaved Starflower
A small delicate herb with a single whorl of leaves topped by several small, pink, star-shaped flowers.
Leaves deciduous.
Trillium ovatum
Western Trillium
Short stout stems topped with a whorl of three leaves and a single large white flower.
Height: 12-18 inches (30-45 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Tsuga heterophylla
Western hemlock
Leaves evergreen.
Tsuga mertensiana
Mountain Hemlock
Slow growing evergreen conifer.
Height: Up to 40 meters (130 ft) tall, but often shorter. Leaves evergreen.
Urtica dioica
Stinging Nettle
Tall perennial herb with deciduous leaves covered in stinging hairs.
Leaves deciduous.
Vaccinium ovatum
Evergreen huckleberry
Bushy shrub with small shiny green evergreen leaves and small clusters of pink bell-shaped flowers.
Height: Up to 4 meters (13 ft) tall. Leaves evergreen.
Vaccinium parvifolium
Red Huckleberry
Delicately branched shrub with small red huckleberries, suitable for shady areas on decaying wood.
Height: 4-10 feet (1.5-3 meters). Leaves deciduous.
Vancouveria hexandra
Inside-out Flower
Rhizomatous perennial with small white flowers and delicate leaves.
Height: 16 inches (40 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Viburnum edule
High Bush Cranberry
Shrub with bright red berries and brilliant fall foliage.
Height: 3-9 feet (1-3 meters) tall. Leaves deciduous.
Viola adunca
Early-blue Violet
A blue flowered violet that grows from slender rhizomes and is stemless in the early season, later grow upright stem.
Height: Up to 4 inches (10 cm). Leaves deciduous.
Viola glabella
Yellow Wood Violet
An attractive yellow-flowered violet of moist open woodlands.
Leaves deciduous.
Viola sempervirens
Evergreen Violet
A creeping violet with evergreen leaves and yellow flowers.
Leaves evergreen.
Xerophyllum tenax
Beargrass
Forms a tall grass-like clump of tough leaves topped by a large dense cluster of white flowers.
Height: 3-5 feet (1-1.5 meters). Leaves evergreen.


The landscaping and restoration information provided on this page is taken from the Starflower Foundation Image Herbarium. All photographs © Starflower Foundation unless otherwise noted.