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Home > Landscaping > Native Plants for Western Washington Gardens and Restoration Projects


Native Plants that do not produce flowers

Abies amabilis
Pacific Silver Fir
An attractive conifer with short dark green needles. Tolerant of shade.
Abies grandis
Grand Fir
Abies grandis is a tall, straight tree with short, dense branches.
Height: 130-260 feet (40-80 meters).
Adiantum aleuticum
Maidenhair Fern, Aleutian maidenhair, western maidenhair, serpentine maidenhair
Small to medium-sized delicate, deciduous fern with a fan-shaped arrangement of five to seven fingerlike branchlets each bearing many toothed leaflets.
Height: 6-43 inches (15-110 cm).
No flowers; Spore-bearing sori are found on the underside of the leaf, protected by indusium-like inrolled leaf margins.
Athyrium filix-femina
Lady Fern
Tall, delicate, light-green fronds from a basal cluster.
Height: Grows 3-6 feet (2 meters) tall.
None; produces spores.
Blechnum spicant
Deer Fern
Dark green fern leaves grow in tufts from short, stout rhizomes.
Height: Up to 40 inches (1 meter) tall.
None; produces spores on special modified leaves held upright above the vegetative leaves.
Dryopteris expansa
Spiny Wood Fern
A semi-evergreen fern of woodland areas with triangular fronds from a stout rhizome.
Height: To 3 feet (1 meter) tall.
Equisetum arvense
Field Horsetail
Succulent, hollow, jointed stems with whorls of branches.
Height: 6-24 inches (15-60 cm).
Horsetails reproduce by spores, and do not have flowers; green spores are produced in flesh-colored cone at tip of fertile stem.
Equisetum telmatiea
Giant Horsetail
More robust and larger than common horsetail. Sheaths around its sterile stems have 14-18 teeth.
Height: 3-7.5 (10) feet tall; 1-2.3 (3) meters tall.
Horsetails reproduce by spores, and do not have flowers; green spores are produced in flesh-colored cone at tip of fertile stem.
Gymnocarpium dryopteris
Oak Fern
Delicate, deciduous fronds. Usually solitary, but often forms a mat of herbaceous cover in forests.
Height: To 16 inches (40 cm).
None; produces spores in small, circular, sori arranged in two rows on lower leaflets; indusia lacking.
Larix occidentalis
Western Larch
Picea sitchensis
Sitka spruce
Large tree with horizontal branches and drooping branchlets
Height: Up to 200 feet (60 meters) tall.
Cones. Pollen cones red; seed cones 5-8 cm (2-3 in) long, cylindrical, reddish-brown becoming brown, with thin, wavy, irregularly toothed scales.
Pinus contorta
Shore Pine
Short pine tree, often with crooked trunk and bushy habit.
Height: Up to 100 feet (30 meters).
Pollen cones small, reddish-green in clusters on tips of branches in spring.
Polystichum munitum
Sword Fern
A large attractive fern with erect evergreen fronds forming a circular crown.
Height: 3-5 feet (1-1.5 meters).
Produces spores in circular sori located halfway between the mid-vein and the margin in rows of two. Insidium is round with fringed margins.
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Douglas fir
Large coniferous tree with thick, fluted bark.
Height: Up to 300 feet (90 meters).
Pollen cones reddish-brown, small.
Pteridium aquilinum
Bracken Fern
Rhizomous perennial fern with large, much-divided solitary fronds,
Height: Usually 3-6 feet (1-2 meters) tall, sometimes taller.
Produces spores. Sori marginal, continuous, covered by rolled leaf margin; indusium not evident.
Taxus brevifolia
Western Yew
Low-growing conifer with deep red-brown bark, flattened sprays of needles, and red berry-like cones.
Thuja plicata
Western Red Cedar
Large conifer with branches that droop and then turn back up (J-shaped), broad crowns.
Height: 100-230 feet (30-70 meters).
Pollen cones are small and numerous, pollen and seed cones occur on separate branches, pollen cones are 2 mm long and narrowly cylindrical, female cones are 10-19 mm long and stubby; primary color: woody-brown.
Tsuga heterophylla
Western hemlock
Tsuga mertensiana
Mountain Hemlock
Slow growing evergreen conifer.
Height: Up to 40 meters (130 ft) tall, but often shorter.
Male pollen cones bluish-green.


The landscaping and restoration information provided on this page is taken from the Starflower Foundation Image Herbarium. All photographs © Starflower Foundation unless otherwise noted.