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Home > Landscaping > Native Plants for Western Washington Gardens and Restoration Projects



Crataegus douglasii

black hawthorn

Flowering Period: Apr, May April May
Flower color: white
Moist soil


At a Glance: large shrub or small tree with clusters of white flowers and dark purplish-black berries.

Growth Form: Shrub.
Stems: Stems have large thorns (3 cm long); bark is grey, rough and scaly, often mottled with patches of lichen.
Leaves: Alternating arrangement. Leaves are quite thick and leathery; dark green above and paler green below; the top end of leaves has 5-9 lobes; saw-toothed margins; shape: oval; size: 3-6 cm (1.2-2.5 in) long.
Flowers: Stinky odor; 5 petals, 5 styles, 10-20 stamens; flowers are in clusters borne terminally or in leaf axis; primary color: white; size: 1 cm across.
Flowering Period: April, May.
Fruits: Berries containing large seeds and greenish pulp; persist through winter; fruits hang in cluster; shape: round; size: 1 cm long; color: blackish-purple.

Crataegus douglasii
Photo © 2004, Starflower Foundation
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Sun/Shade Tolerance Hydrology Elevation Range
(data not available)


wet
moist
dry

Wetland Indicator Status:
low elevation
mid elevation
sub-alpine
high elevation


Soil Preferences
(data not available)

Habitat Preferences
Aquatic and Wetland:
Ponds or lakes
Shallow pools
Sloughs
Swales or wet ditches
Seasonally inundated areas
Marshes or swamps
Aquatic bed wetlands
Emergent wetlands
Scrub-shrub wetlands
Forested wetlands
Bogs, fens
Seeps, springs
Shorelines and Riparian:
Lake shores
Bog margins
Streams or rivers
Stream or river banks
Riparian corridors
River bars
Floodplains
Bottomlands
Alluvial areas
Saltwater Areas:
In or near saltwater
Mud flats
Tidal areas
Estuaries
Saltmarshes
Brackish water
Seashores
Coastal dunes or beaches
Rocky or Gravelly Areas:
Coastal bluffs
Cliffs
Rocky slopes
Outcrops
Crevices
Glacial outwash
Gullies
Slide areas
Sub-alpine and Alpine:
Heaths
Snow beds
Tundra
Avalanche tracks
Forests and Thickets:
Forests and woods
Open forests
Coniferous forests
Old growth forests
Deciduous forests
Mixed forests
Nurse logs
Forest edges, openings, or clearings
Thickets
Meadows and Fields:
Pastures or fields
Meadows or grassy areas
Mossy areas
Disturbed Areas:
Roadsides
Trailsides
Logged sites
Burned areas
Disturbed sites

Wildlife Value
Berries
Seeds
Nectar for hummingbirds
Nectar for butterflies
Host for insect larvae
Thickets and shelter
Thorny or protective cover

Birds: Bird species that eat the berries include solitaires, robins, waxwings, grosbeaks, thrushes, woodpeckers, band-tailed pigeons, wood ducks, grouse, pheasants, and turkeys.
Insects: The leaves provide food for swallowtail butterfly larvae.
Mammals: Mammals that eat the berries include black bears, coyotes, and foxes. Rabbits and deer browse the twigs. The black hawthorn is resistant to beaver damage.


Ethnobotanical Uses and Other Facts
(data not available)


Suggested References



The landscaping and restoration information provided on this page is taken from the Starflower Foundation Image Herbarium. All photographs © Starflower Foundation unless otherwise noted.