At a Glance: Large tree with horizontal branches and drooping branchlets
|Sun/Shade Tolerance||Hydrology||Elevation Range||
full sun > 80%
mostly sunny 60%-80%
partial sun and shade 40%- 60%
mostly shady 60%-80%
full shade > 80%
Wetland Indicator Status:
well drained soils
nutrient rich soils
nutrient poor soils
Aquatic and Wetland:
Ponds or lakes
Swales or wet ditches
Seasonally inundated areas
Marshes or swamps
Aquatic bed wetlands
Seeps, springsShorelines and Riparian:
Streams or rivers
Stream or river banks
In or near saltwater
Coastal dunes or beachesRocky or Gravelly Areas:
Slide areasSub-alpine and Alpine:
Forests and Thickets:
Forests and woods
Old growth forests
Forest edges, openings, or clearings
ThicketsMeadows and Fields:
Pastures or fields
Meadows or grassy areas
Mossy areasDisturbed Areas:
Nectar for hummingbirds
Nectar for butterflies
Host for insect larvae
Thickets and shelter
Thorny or protective cover
Birds: Nuthatches, grosbeaks, finches, chickadees, siskins, goldfinches, crossbills, and sparrows all eat the seeds. Grouse eat the needles, sapsuckers harvest insects from the sap, and woodpeckers forage on bark beetles. Bald eagles and other predatory birds use the tree as a roost to survey the shore for prey. Some large birds of prey may use the mature trees for nests. Cavity-nesting birds and other animals use the tree cavities.
Mammals: Colombian black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk consume the succulent new shoots. Deer, squirrels, chipmunks, and porcupines benefit from the shelter of the tree.
|Ethnobotanical Uses and Other Facts||
Material Uses: The roots were used to make water-tight hats and baskets, especially among the Haida, and Tlingit. The pitch was chewed for pleasure. The roots were also used for twine, rope, including whaling lines. The pitch was used to caulk harpoon tips and canoes. The wood has been used for shelving, ladders, musical instruments, and airplane frames in WWI and WWII.
Medicinal Uses: The inner bark was eaten as a laxative by the Nuxalk. The pitch was used as a medicine for gonorrhea, syphilis, colds, sore throats, internal swellings, rheumatism and toothaches.
Food Uses: The Haida, Tlingit, Tsimshian ate the inner bark fresh or dried into cakes with berries. The Makah ate the young shoots raw, which are high in vitamin C. The pitch can be chewed as gum.
Landscape Uses: This tree will grow too large for most landscapes.
- Brockman, F.C. 1968. A Guide to Field Identification: Trees of North America. Western Publishing Company. Page .
- Cooke, S.S. A Field Guide to the Common Wetland Plants of Western Washington and Northwetern Oregon. Seattle Audubon Society and Washington Native Plant Society. Page 4.
- Gunther, E. 1973. 2nd ed. Ethnobotany of Western Washington. University of Washington Press. Page 17.
- Hickman, J.C., ed. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Page 117.
- Hitchcock, C.L., A. Cronquist. 1973. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press. Page 61.
- Jacobson A.L. 2001. Wild Plants of Greater Seattle. Published by author. Page 56.
- Link, R. 1999. Landscaping for Wildlife in the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press. Page 241.
- Lyons, C., W. Merilees. Trees and Shrubs to Know in Washington and British Columbia. Lone Pine Publishing. Page 67.
- Pojar, J., A. Mackinnon. 1994. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Lone Pine Publishing. Page 37.
- Turner, N.AJ. 1975. Food Plants of British Columbia Indians: part 1, Coastal Peoples. British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 87.
The landscaping and restoration information provided on this page is taken from the Starflower Foundation Image Herbarium. All photographs © Starflower Foundation unless otherwise noted.