At a Glance: Beautiful, deciduous, heavy limbed oak tree.
|Sun/Shade Tolerance||Hydrology||Elevation Range||
full sun > 80%
mostly sunny 60%-80%
partial sun and shade 40%- 60%
mostly shady 60%-80%
full shade > 80%
Wetland Indicator Status:
FACU (facultative upland)
well drained soils
nutrient rich soils
nutrient poor soils
Aquatic and Wetland:
Ponds or lakes
Swales or wet ditches
Seasonally inundated areas
Marshes or swamps
Aquatic bed wetlands
Seeps, springsShorelines and Riparian:
Streams or rivers
Stream or river banks
In or near saltwater
Coastal dunes or beachesRocky or Gravelly Areas:
Slide areasSub-alpine and Alpine:
Forests and Thickets:
Forests and woods
Old growth forests
Forest edges, openings, or clearings
ThicketsMeadows and Fields:
Pastures or fields
Meadows or grassy areas
Mossy areasDisturbed Areas:
Nectar for hummingbirds
Nectar for butterflies
Host for insect larvae
Thickets and shelter
Thorny or protective cover
Birds: Wood ducks, mallards, turkeys, band-tailed pigeons, quails, grouse, woodpeckers, nuthatches, thrushes, towhees, jays, and Clarks nutcrackers eat the acorns. Cavity nesting birds and other wildlife nest and roost in tree cavities.
Insects: Many insects are associated with oaks, certain butterfly larvae eat the leaves.
Mammals: Black bears, deer, muskrats, raccoons, tree squirrels, gophers, ground squirrels, and mice eat the acorns
|Ethnobotanical Uses and Other Facts||
Material Uses: The Cowlitz used Garry Oak wood to make combs and digging sticks, and burned it as a fuel.
Medicinal Uses: The Cowlitz boil the bark as a cure for tuberculosis.
Food Uses: Some native peoples used the acorns as food, but because of the lengthy tannin-leeching process, it was not relied on.
- Brockman, F.C. 1968. A Guide to Field Identification: Trees of North America. Western Publishing Company. Page .
- Gunther, E. 1973. 2nd ed. Ethnobotany of Western Washington. University of Washington Press. Page 27.
- Hitchcock, C.L., A. Cronquist. 1973. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press. Page 74.
- Jacobson A.L. 2001. Wild Plants of Greater Seattle. Published by author. Page 76.
- Link, R. 1999. Landscaping for Wildlife in the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press. Page 250.
- Lyons, C., W. Merilees. Trees and Shrubs to Know in Washington and British Columbia. Lone Pine Publishing. Page 88.
- Pojar, J., A. Mackinnon. 1994. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Lone Pine Publishing. Page 50.
- Turner, N.AJ. 1975. Food Plants of British Columbia Indians: part 1, Coastal Peoples. British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 214.
The landscaping and restoration information provided on this page is taken from the Starflower Foundation Image Herbarium. All photographs © Starflower Foundation unless otherwise noted.