At a Glance: Forms patches from long creeping rhizomes. Stems leafy and hairy near the top, with a dense cluster of small yellow flowers.
|Sun/Shade Tolerance||Hydrology||Elevation Range||
full sun > 80%
mostly sunny 60%-80%
partial sun and shade 40%- 60%
mostly shady 60%-80%
full shade > 80%
|Common in dry and moist habitats.
Wetland Indicator Status:
NI (no indicator data)
|Prefers soils rich in nutrients.|
well drained soils
nutrient rich soils
nutrient poor soils
Aquatic and Wetland:
Ponds or lakes
Swales or wet ditches
Seasonally inundated areas
Marshes or swamps
Aquatic bed wetlands
Seeps, springsShorelines and Riparian:
Streams or rivers
Stream or river banks
In or near saltwater
Coastal dunes or beachesRocky or Gravelly Areas:
Slide areasSub-alpine and Alpine:
Forests and Thickets:
Forests and woods
Old growth forests
Forest edges, openings, or clearings
ThicketsMeadows and Fields:
Pastures or fields
Meadows or grassy areas
Mossy areasDisturbed Areas:
Nectar for hummingbirds
Nectar for butterflies
Host for insect larvae
Thickets and shelter
Thorny or protective cover
Birds: The seeds of goldenrod are eaten by numerous bird species.
Insects: The bright, showy flowers attract bumblebees and pine white, red admiral, and mylitta crescent butterflies. Syrphid flies and small wasps also frequently visit the goldenrod flowers.
|Ethnobotanical Uses and Other Facts||
Material Uses: Okanogan children use to pull up golden rod stalks and play with them using them as whips. Goldenrod was reputedly carried into battle during the crusades and was often used as a substitute for highly taxed English tea during the American revolution. Goldenrod contains small amounts of rubber and Thomas Edison tried to make a business out of extracting rubber from inexpensive goldenrod. The yellow tops can be harvested and used to make a strong yellow or golden dye.
Name Info: The Latin name solidus means whole. The Latin word ago means to make. Together the name means to make whole or create.
- Alden, P., D. Paulson. 1998. National Audubon Society, Field Guide to the Pacific Northwest. Chanticleer Press. Page 137.
- Gunther, E. 1973. 2nd ed. Ethnobotany of Western Washington. University of Washington Press. Page 48.
- Hitchcock, C.L., A. Cronquist. 1973. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press. Page 549.
- Jacobson A.L. 2001. Wild Plants of Greater Seattle. Published by author. Page 306.
- Link, R. 1999. Landscaping for Wildlife in the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press. Page 284.
- Lyons, C., W. Merilees. Trees and Shrubs to Know in Washington and British Columbia. Lone Pine Publishing. Page 237.
- Pojar, J., A. Mackinnon. 1994. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Lone Pine Publishing. Page 289.
- Turner, N.AJ. 1975. Food Plants of British Columbia Indians: part 1, Coastal Peoples. British Columbia Provincial Museum. Page 210.
The landscaping and restoration information provided on this page is taken from the Starflower Foundation Image Herbarium. All photographs © Starflower Foundation unless otherwise noted.