HOME

About WNPS
Administration
Calendar
Contact WNPS
History
How to Donate
Membership
Online Store

Activities
Conservation
Ecosystems
Education
Landscaping
Native Plant Lists
Publications
Research
Restoration

Local Chapters
Field Trips
Programs
Plant Sales
Volunteer

Photo Gallery

Priorities
Garry Oak
Invasive Species
Shrub-Steppe

Programs
Growing Wild
Ivy OUT
WNPS Stewards

An Affiliate of

Earthshare of Washington

Home > Landscaping > Native Plants for Western Washington Gardens and Restoration Projects



Solidago canadensis

Canada Goldenrod

Flowering Period: Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep June July August September
Flower color: yellow
Mostly sunny
Moist soil Dry soil


At a Glance: Forms patches from long creeping rhizomes. Stems leafy and hairy near the top, with a dense cluster of small yellow flowers.

Height: Up to 5 feet (1.5 meters).
Growth Form: Herb.
Stems: Leafy stems, hairy on upper portions.
Leaves: Lacking basal leaves; stem leaves numerous and crowded, gradually reduced upwards; saw-toothed to entire; hairless to roughly hairy on upper and lower sides; leaves are prominently 3-veined; shape: lance-shaped to linear; color: green.
Flowers: Numerous flower heads in dense pyramidal cluster; ray flowers 10-17, 1-3 mm long; involucres 3-6mm x 3-5mm, long-pointed bracts that sometimes overlap, sometimes sticky and glandular.
Flowering Period: June, July, August, September.
Fruits: Short, hairy achenes; white hairs on pappus.

Solidago canadensis
Photo © Heidi Bohan
Click to view larger Click to view larger Click to view larger
Click to view larger Click to view larger Click to view larger


Sun/Shade Tolerance Hydrology Elevation Range
full sun > 80%
mostly sunny 60%-80%
partial sun and shade 40%- 60%
mostly shady 60%-80%
full shade > 80%

Common in dry and moist habitats.

wet
moist
dry

Wetland Indicator Status:
NI (no indicator data)
low elevation
mid elevation
sub-alpine
high elevation


Soil Preferences
Prefers soils rich in nutrients.
sandy soils
gravelly soils
clay soils
muddy soils
peaty soils
well drained soils
shallow soils
deep soils
acidic soils
basic soils
humic soils
nutrient rich soils
nutrient poor soils
mineral soils
organic soils

Habitat Preferences
Aquatic and Wetland:
Ponds or lakes
Shallow pools
Sloughs
Swales or wet ditches
Seasonally inundated areas
Marshes or swamps
Aquatic bed wetlands
Emergent wetlands
Scrub-shrub wetlands
Forested wetlands
Bogs, fens
Seeps, springs
Shorelines and Riparian:
Lake shores
Bog margins
Streams or rivers
Stream or river banks
Riparian corridors
River bars
Floodplains
Bottomlands
Alluvial areas
Saltwater Areas:
In or near saltwater
Mud flats
Tidal areas
Estuaries
Saltmarshes
Brackish water
Seashores
Coastal dunes or beaches
Rocky or Gravelly Areas:
Coastal bluffs
Cliffs
Rocky slopes
Outcrops
Crevices
Glacial outwash
Gullies
Slide areas
Sub-alpine and Alpine:
Heaths
Snow beds
Tundra
Avalanche tracks
Forests and Thickets:
Forests and woods
Open forests
Coniferous forests
Old growth forests
Deciduous forests
Mixed forests
Nurse logs
Forest edges, openings, or clearings
Thickets
Meadows and Fields:
Pastures or fields
Meadows or grassy areas
Mossy areas
Disturbed Areas:
Roadsides
Trailsides
Logged sites
Burned areas
Disturbed sites

Wildlife Value
Berries
Seeds
Nectar for hummingbirds
Nectar for butterflies
Host for insect larvae
Thickets and shelter
Thorny or protective cover

Birds: The seeds of goldenrod are eaten by numerous bird species.
Insects: The bright, showy flowers attract bumblebees and pine white, red admiral, and mylitta crescent butterflies. Syrphid flies and small wasps also frequently visit the goldenrod flowers.


Ethnobotanical Uses and Other Facts
Material Uses: Okanogan children use to pull up golden rod stalks and play with them using them as whips. Goldenrod was reputedly carried into battle during the crusades and was often used as a substitute for highly taxed English tea during the American revolution. Goldenrod contains small amounts of rubber and Thomas Edison tried to make a business out of extracting rubber from inexpensive goldenrod. The yellow tops can be harvested and used to make a strong yellow or golden dye.
Name Info: The Latin name solidus means whole. The Latin word ago means to make. Together the name means to make whole or create.


Suggested References



The landscaping and restoration information provided on this page is taken from the Starflower Foundation Image Herbarium. All photographs © Starflower Foundation unless otherwise noted.